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  3. Le Corbusier, en perspectiva

Le Corbusier, en perspectiva

Le Corbusier, en perspectiva
Le Corbusier, en perspectiva, Notre Dame du Haut at Ronchamp. Image © <a href='www.flickr.com/photos/9160678@N06/2089042156'>Flickr user scarletgreen</a> licensed under <a href='https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/'>CC BY 2.0</a>
Notre Dame du Haut at Ronchamp. Image © Flickr user scarletgreen licensed under CC BY 2.0

"Espacio y luz y orden. Esas son las cosas que los hombres necesitan tanto como necesitan el pan o un lugar para dormir."

Palace of the Assembly at Chandigarh. Image © <a href='https://www.flickr.com/photos/70608042@N00/1321525329'>Flickr user chiara_facchetti</a> licensed under <a href='https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0/'>CC BY-SA 2.0</a> Villa Savoye. Image © Flavio Bragaia Church at Firminy. Image © Richard Weil Swiss Pavilion. Image © Samuel Ludwig + 25

© Willy Rizzo
© Willy Rizzo

Charles Edouard Jeanneret-Gris (1887-1965), más conocido como Le Corbusier, uno de los padres de la arquitectura moderna habría cumplido 127 años hoy.

Weissenhof-Siedlung Houses 14 and 15 / Le Corbusier and Pierre Jeanneret. Image © Hassan Bagheri / hbarchitectural.com
Weissenhof-Siedlung Houses 14 and 15 / Le Corbusier and Pierre Jeanneret. Image © Hassan Bagheri / hbarchitectural.com

El arquitecto de origen suizo, urbanista, diseñador, pintor y escritor, es ampliamente considerado como uno de los pioneros del movimiento modernista en la arquitectura. A lo largo de su carrera de cinco décadas, recorrió las obras construidas de Europa, India y Estados Unidos.

Villa Savoye. Image © Flavio Bragaia
Villa Savoye. Image © Flavio Bragaia

Autor de la seminal "Vers une architecture", Le Corbusier y su carrera de arquitectura realmente despegó en 1914 cuando desarrolló el esquema de la "Casa Domino", un proyecto que se convirtió en una base para el futuro trabajo de diseño.

Después de mudarse a París en la década de 1910, Corbusier abrió un despacho con su primo Pierre Jeanneret. Fue allí donde comenzó a explorar realmente el concepto de una casa como "una máquina para habitar", y comenzó a desarrollar sus cinco puntos de la arquitectura.

Swiss Pavilion. Image © Samuel Ludwig
Swiss Pavilion. Image © Samuel Ludwig

Aunque Corbusier no construyó durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial, continuó desarrollando sus teorías sobre la construcción modular, que más tarde se reflejó en sus bloques de viviendas masivas, las Unite D’Habitation (1947). Su carrera posterior se llevó a cabo en gran medida en la India, donde su estructura utilizaba hormigón bruto, materiales autóctonos y la estructura articulada.

Villa Savoye. Image © Flavio Bragaia
Villa Savoye. Image © Flavio Bragaia

El trabajo de Corbusier es uno de los más influyentes que ha visto la historia de la arquitectura, en especial en la planificación urbana. Fue uno de los primeros en anticipar la influencia del automóvil en el desarrollo urbano, y sus teorías urbanísticas han sido tratadas como cánones desde su introducción.

Algunos de sus trabajos más destacados incluyen Pabellón Philips Expo 58Pabellón SuizoVille RocheChaise Longue LC 4 Ronchamp,  Casa Curutchet,  Unidad Habitacional de Berlín y la Ville Savoye

Notre Dame du Haut at Ronchamp. Image © <a href='https://www.flickr.com/photos/roryrory/2501817294'>Flickr user roryrory</a> licensed under <a href='https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0/'>CC BY-SA 2.0</a>
Notre Dame du Haut at Ronchamp. Image © Flickr user roryrory licensed under CC BY-SA 2.0

Y revisa algunos de los artículos más recientes acerca de Le Corbusier:

Convent of La Tourette. Image © Samuel Ludwig
Convent of La Tourette. Image © Samuel Ludwig

Unité d'Habitation in Marseille. Image © <a href='https://www.flickr.com/photos/wojtekgurak/4100368638'>Flickr user wojtekgurak</a> licensed under <a href='https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/2.0/'>CC BY-NC 2.0</a>
Unité d'Habitation in Marseille. Image © Flickr user wojtekgurak licensed under CC BY-NC 2.0

Throughout his career, alongside his architectural work Le Corbusier was a fierce and radical campaigner for new visions of modernist urban planning. Like his early architectural work, Le Corbusier’s urban designs were focused on purely functional design and gave great primacy to the automobile. His first plan, the “Ville Contemporaine” was designed in 1922, and in 1925 he designed the “Plan Voisin,” which proposed to destroy a large area of central Paris to be replaced with a grid of modernist towers, set in a park and connected by a network of raised highways. Ten years later, Le Corbusier expanded this design into the hypothetical “Ville Radieuse,” and these proposals would go on to influence the design of his “Unités” as self-contained villages for entire communities.

Convent of La Tourette. Image © Samuel Ludwig
Convent of La Tourette. Image © Samuel Ludwig

Le Corbusier’s urban planning forms the basis for much of the criticism of his work and his life. Using his power as a key member of the Congres Internationaux d’Architecture Moderne (CIAM), Le Corbusier presented his principles for the functional city in his Athens Charter, so named after the group’s destination for their fourth meeting in 1933. The Athens Charter became a foundational document for modern city planning, and in Le Corbusier’s name cities all over the world were modernized—replacing traditional, organic and often impoverished neighborhoods with high-rise modernist social housing blocks, to varying degrees of success. Le Corbusier has also been widely criticized for the political connections he kept in his attempts to realize his plans, working alongside the Vichy government of France and accepting an invitation to lecture in Rome from Benito Mussolini.

Chandigarh. Image © Laurian Ghinitoiu
Chandigarh. Image © Laurian Ghinitoiu

In the 1950s, Le Corbusier was finally able to realize a synthesis of his architectural and urban planning visions when he was invited to complete the design of Chandigarh, the new capital of the state of Punjab in India. Le Corbusier designed a functional city layout, and for the city’s Capitol he designed three buildings himself: the Secretariat Building, the Palace of the Assembly, and the High Court.

Palace of the Assembly at Chandigarh. Image © <a href='https://www.flickr.com/photos/70608042@N00/1321525329'>Flickr user chiara_facchetti</a> licensed under <a href='https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0/'>CC BY-SA 2.0</a>
Palace of the Assembly at Chandigarh. Image © Flickr user chiara_facchetti licensed under CC BY-SA 2.0

Le Corbusier’s influence on contemporary architecture is immeasurable. He helped form the basis of almost all modernist architecture and urban planning, with almost all contemporary theory essentially acting as a continuation of, or a rejection of, his ideals. Beyond that, he established the very way in which architecture is now practiced: writer Hal Foster refers to Le Corbusier as an “architect-polemicist” who helped lay the groundwork for current figures such as Rem Koolhaas to emerge. [2] As a result Alan Plattus, in his introduction to Deborah Gans’ book The Le Corbusier Guide proclaims:

“The effect of half a century of commentary, criticism, research and design has not been so much to situate Le Corbusier as to dissolve him into the collective bloodstream of the century… Le Corbusier has become not so much an object for our discourse as part of the very ground upon which that discourse must be founded.” [3]

Find out more about Le Corbusier's works via the thumbnails below, and more about his influence on architecture via the links below those:

Notre Dame du Haut at Ronchamp. Image © <a href='www.flickr.com/photos/9160678@N06/2089042156'>Flickr user scarletgreen</a> licensed under <a href='https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/'>CC BY 2.0</a> Palace of the Assembly at Chandigarh. Image © <a href='https://www.flickr.com/photos/70608042@N00/1321525329'>Flickr user chiara_facchetti</a> licensed under <a href='https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0/'>CC BY-SA 2.0</a> Convent of La Tourette. Image © Samuel Ludwig Notre Dame du Haut at Ronchamp. Image © <a href='https://www.flickr.com/photos/roryrory/2501817294'>Flickr user roryrory</a> licensed under <a href='https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0/'>CC BY-SA 2.0</a> Villa Savoye. Image © Flavio Bragaia Villa Savoye. Image © Flavio Bragaia Palace of the Assembly at Chandigarh. Image © Nicholas Iyadura Convent of La Tourette. Image © Samuel Ludwig Chandigarh Secretariat Building. Image © <a href='https://www.flickr.com/photos/58435577@N00/354987723/'>Flickr user diametrik</a> licensed under <a href='https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/'>CC BY 2.0</a> Chandigarh Secretariat Building. Image © <a href='https://www.flickr.com/photos/robespiero/3252002121'>Flickr user robespiero</a> licensed under <a href='https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/'>CC BY 2.0</a> Unité d'Habitation in Marseille. Image © <a href='https://www.flickr.com/photos/wojtekgurak/4100368638'>Flickr user wojtekgurak</a> licensed under <a href='https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/2.0/'>CC BY-NC 2.0</a> Unité d'Habitation in Marseille. Image © <a href='https://www.flickr.com/photos/saragoldsmith/3669120092/in/photolist-6Aeczf-6AeazE-6Aa2e4-6AebUb-6AaghK-6AagSt-6Aa1cP-6Aa3hx-6Ae9vN-6xZFLN-43h2S'>Flickr user saragoldsmith</a> licensed under <a href='https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/'>CC BY 2.0</a> Church at Firminy. Image © Richard Weil Church at Firminy. Image © Richard Weil Swiss Pavilion. Image © Samuel Ludwig Mill Owners' Association Building. Image © Motaleb Architekten Villa Roche. Image © <a href='https://www.flickr.com/photos/roryrory/2520904472'>Flickr user roryrory</a> licensed under <a href='https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0/'>CC BY-SA 2.0</a> Weissenhof-Siedlung Houses 14 and 15 / Le Corbusier and Pierre Jeanneret. Image © Hassan Bagheri / hbarchitectural.com Maison du Bresil. Image © Samuel Ludwig Centre Le Corbusier (Heidi Weber Museum). Image © Samuel Ludwig Unité d’Habition, Berlin. Image © Thomas Lewandovski Philips Pavilion / Le Corbusier and Iannis Xenakis. Image © <a href='https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Expo58_building_Philips.jpg'>Wikimedia user Wouterhagens</a> licensed under <a href='https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/'>CC BY-SA 3.0</a> Carpenter Center for the Visual Arts. Image © <a href='https://www.flickr.com/photos/wotba/2627984385'>Flickr user wotba</a> licensed under <a href='https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/'>CC BY 2.0</a> Chandigarh. Image © Laurian Ghinitoiu + 25

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When Frank Lloyd Wright and Le Corbusier Had a Public Argument in The New York Times

Light Matters: Le Corbusier and the Trinity of Light

Drawing on the Road: The Story of a Young Le Corbusier's Travels Through Europe

7 Documentaries to Deepen Your Understanding of Le Corbusier

Material Masters: Le Corbusier's Love for Concrete

Rare Footage of Le Corbusier Discussing his Work, Poetry & the "Ideal City"

See Le Corbusier's Convent de la Tourette Come to Life in this New Video

Explore Le Corbusier's Only South American Project, the Casa Curutchet, With a Virtual Walkthrough

References

  1. Kenneth Frampton: Modern Architecture: A Critical History (Thames & Hudson, 2007) p.225
  2. Hal Foster: "Bigness," London Review of Books, November 19th 2001
  3. Alan Plattus: "Le Corbusier: A Dialectical Itinerary" in The Le Corbusier Guide (Princeton Architectural Press, 2000) p.12

Sobre este autor/a
Rory Stott
Autor
Cita: Rory Stott. "Le Corbusier, en perspectiva" [Spotlight: Le Corbusier] 06 oct 2014. Plataforma Arquitectura. (Trad. Duque, Karina) Accedido el . <https://www.plataformaarquitectura.cl/cl/703910/feliz-cumpleanos-le-corbusier> ISSN 0719-8914